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Introduction :: Mali
The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup - led by the current president Amadou TOURE - enabling Mali's emergence as one of the strongest democracies on the continent. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first democratic presidential election in 1992 and was reelected in 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, KONARE stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou TOURE, who was subsequently elected to a second term in 2007. The elections were widely judged to be free and fair.
Geography :: Mali
Western Africa, southwest of Algeria
Geographic coordinates:
17 00 N, 4 00 W
Map references:
total: 1,240,192 sq km
country comparison to the world: 24
land: 1,220,190 sq km
water: 20,002 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
total: 7,243 km
border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Current Weather
subtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)
mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m
Natural resources:
gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, gypsum, granite, hydropower
note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Land use:
arable land: 3.76%
permanent crops: 0.03%
other: 96.21% (2005)
Irrigated land:
2,360 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
100 cu km (2001)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 6.55 cu km/yr (9%/1%/90%)
per capita: 484 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding
Environment - current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan
People :: Mali
13,796,354 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
Age structure:
0-14 years: 47.6% (male 3,220,491/female 3,177,823)
15-64 years: 49.5% (male 3,241,250/female 3,406,757)
65 years and over: 3% (male 189,886/female 207,018) (2010 est.)
Median age:
total: 16.2 years
male: 15.8 years
female: 16.6 years (2010 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.607% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
Birth rate:
46.09 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
Death rate:
14.64 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
Net migration rate:
-5.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 201
urban population: 32% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 4.8% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 113.66 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 4
male: 120.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 106.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 52.17 years
country comparison to the world: 208
male: 50.59 years
female: 53.8 years (2010 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.54 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
1.5% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
100,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
5,800 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2009)
noun: Malian(s)
adjective: Malian
Ethnic groups:
Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%
Muslim 90%, Christian 1%, indigenous beliefs 9%
French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 46.4%
male: 53.5%
female: 39.6% (2003 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 8 years
male: 9 years
female: 7 years (2009)
Education expenditures:
3.8% of GDP (2008)
country comparison to the world: 117
Government :: Mali
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Mali
conventional short form: Mali
local long form: Republique de Mali
local short form: Mali
former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic
Government type:
name: Bamako
geographic coordinates: 12 39 N, 8 00 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou
22 September 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 22 September (1960)
adopted 12 January 1992
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Amadou Toumani TOURE (since 8 June 2002)
head of government: Prime Minister Modibo SIDIBE (since 28 September 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 29 April 2007 (next to be held in April 2012); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Amadou Toumani TOURE reelected president; percent of vote - Amadou Toumani TOURE 71.2%, Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA 19.2%, other 9.6%
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 1 and 22 July 2007 (next to be held in July 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ADP coalition 113 (ADEMA 51, URD 34, MPR 8, CNID 7, UDD 3, and other 10), FDR coalition 15 (RPM 11, PARENA 4), SADI 4, independent 15
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Political parties and leaders:
African Solidarity for Democracy and Independence or SADI [Oumar MARIKO, secretary general]; Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Diounconda TRAORE]; Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP (a coalition of political parties including ADEMA and URD formed in December 2006 to support the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE); Alliance for Democratic Change (political group comprised mainly of Tuareg from Mali's northern region); Convergence 2007 [Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA]; Front for Democracy and the Republic or FDR (a coalition of political parties including RPM and PARENA formed to oppose the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE); National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Mady KONATE]; Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME]; Patriotic Movement for Renewal or MPR [Choguel MAIGA]; Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT [Amadou Ali NIANGADOU]; Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Basir GOLOGO]; Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]; Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Soumaila CISSE]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
other: the army; Islamic authorities; rebels in the northern region; state-run cotton company CMDT; tuaregs
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mamadou TRAORE
chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gillian A. MILOVANOVIC
embassy: located just off the Roi Bin Fahad Aziz Bridge just west of the Bamako central district
mailing address: ACI 2000, Rue 243, Porte 297, Bamako
telephone: [223] 270-2300
FAX: [223] 270-2479
Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Senegal (which has an additional green central star) and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea
National anthem:
name: "Le Mali" (Mali)
lyrics/music: Seydou Badian KOUYATE/Banzoumana SISSOKO
note: adopted 1962; the anthem is also known as "Pour L'Afrique et pour toi, Mali" (For Africa and for You, Mali) and "A ton appel Mali" (At Your Call, Mali)
Economy :: Mali
Economy - overview:
Among the 25 poorest countries in the world, Mali is a landlocked country highly dependent on gold mining and agricultural exports for revenue. The country's fiscal status fluctuates with gold and agricultural commodity prices and the harvest. Mali remains dependent on foreign aid. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger River and about 65% of its land area is desert or semidesert. About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. The government has continued an IMF-recommended structural adjustment program that has helped the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali is developing its cotton and iron ore extraction industries to diversify its revenue sources because gold production has started to fall. Mali has invested in tourism but security issues are hurting the industry. Mali's adherence to economic reform and the 50% devaluation of the CFA franc in January 1994 have pushed up economic growth to a 5% average in 1996-2010. Worker remittances and external trade routes for the landlocked country have been jeopardized by continued unrest in neighboring Cote d'Ivoire, however, Mali is building a road network that will connect it to all adjacent countries and it has a railway line to Senegal. In 2010, Mali experienced a regional drought that hurt livestock and livelihoods.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$16.74 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134
$15.91 billion (2009 est.)
$15.24 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$9.077 billion (2010 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
5.2% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
4.4% (2009 est.)
5% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$1,200 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 206
$1,200 (2009 est.)
$1,200 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 45%
industry: 17%
services: 38% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
3.241 million (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 80%
industry and services: 20% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate:
30% (2004 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178
Population below poverty line:
36.1% (2005 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 30.5% (2006)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
40.1 (2001)
country comparison to the world: 61
50.5 (1994)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.5% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
Central bank discount rate:
4.25% (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 97
4.75% (31 December 2008)
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
NA% (31 December 2009 est.)
NA% (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of narrow money:
$1.758 billion (31 December 2009)
$1.559 billion (31 December 2008)
Stock of broad money:
$2.514 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
$2.12 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of domestic credit:
$994.9 million (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 150
$1.095 billion (31 December 2008)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Agriculture - products:
cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats
food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production:
515 million kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
Electricity - consumption:
479 million kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh; note - recent hydropower developments may be providing electricity to Senegal and Mauritania (2008 est.)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2008 est.)
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
Oil - consumption:
6,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
Oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 194
Oil - imports:
4,402 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
Oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148
Current account balance:
-$446 million (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
$294 million (2006)
country comparison to the world: 174
Exports - commodities:
cotton, gold, livestock
Exports - partners:
China 14.61%, Thailand 8.28%, Pakistan 6.74%, Morocco 6.48%, Burkina Faso 4.67%, France 4.6%, India 4.45% (2009)
$2.358 billion (2006)
country comparison to the world: 149
Imports - commodities:
petroleum, machinery and equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners:
Senegal 12.21%, France 11.57%, Cote d'Ivoire 10.05%, China 5.89% (2009)
Debt - external:
$2.8 billion (2002)
country comparison to the world: 133
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 506.04 (2009), 447.81 (2008), 493.51 (2007), 522.59 (2006)
note: since 1 January 1999, the West African CFA franc (XOF) has been pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 CFA francs per euro; West African CFA franc (XOF) coins and banknotes are not accepted in countries using Central African CFA francs (XAF), and vice versa, even though the two currencies trade at par
Communications :: Mali
Telephones - main lines in use:
81,000 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 148
Telephones - mobile cellular:
3.742 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 107
Telephone system:
general assessment: domestic system unreliable but improving; increasing use of local radio loops to extend network coverage to remote areas
domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has increased sharply to nearly 30 per 100 persons
international: country code - 223; satellite communications center and fiber-optic links to neighboring countries; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean) (2008)
Broadcast media:
national public TV broadcaster; 2 privately-owned companies provide subscription services to foreign multi-channel TV packages; national public radio broadcaster supplemented by a large number of privately-owned and community broadcast stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
524 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 179
Internet users:
249,800 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 135
Transportation :: Mali
20 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 134
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2010)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 3 (2010)
total: 593 km
country comparison to the world: 111
narrow gauge: 593 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
total: 18,709 km
country comparison to the world: 114
paved: 3,368 km
unpaved: 15,341 km (2004)
1,800 km (downstream of Koulikoro; low water levels on the River Niger cause problems in dry years; in the months before the rainy season the river is not navigable by commercial vessels) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 46
Ports and terminals:
Military :: Mali
Military branches:
Malian Armed Forces: Army, Republic of Mali Air Force (Force Aerienne de la Republique du Mali, FARM), National Guard (2008)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years (2010)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 2,759,648
females age 16-49: 2,894,776 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,760,901
females age 16-49: 1,900,025 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 153,198
female: 154,762 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
1.9% of GDP (2006)
country comparison to the world: 78
Transnational Issues :: Mali
Disputes - international:
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 6,300 (Mauritania) (2007)

Credits: CIA World Factbook

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